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Nation of Islam (NOI) The Nation of Islam, NOI, is an African-American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on 4 July 1930.  Its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African-Americans in the United States (US) and all of humanity, although critics have described the organisation as being black supremacist and anti-Semitic.  Its official newspaper is The Final Call.  The Southern Poverty Law Centre (SPLC) tracks the NOI as a hate group.  In 2007, the core membership was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000.

Following the disappearance of Fard in June 1934, the Nation of Islam was led by Elijah Muhammad who established Mosques, a school named Muhammad University of Islam, farms, and real estate holdings in the US and abroad -- the NOI has long been a strong advocate of African-American businesses.

A number of splits happened with splinter groups being formed during Elijah Muhammad's leadership, most notably the departure of senior leader Malcolm X to become a Sunni Muslim.  After Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, his son, Warith Deen Mohammed, changed the name of the organisation to ‘World Community of Islam in the West’ (and twice more after that), and attempted to convert it to a mainstream Sunni Muslim ideology.

In 1977, Louis Farrakhan rejected Warith Deen Mohammed's leadership and re-established the Nation of Islam on the original model and took over the NOI’s headquarters Temple, Mosque Maryam (Mosque #2) in Chicago, Illinois.  Since 2010, members have been strongly encouraged to study Dianetics, and the Nation claims it has trained 1055 auditors under Farrakhan.

National Action National Action is a far-right neo-Nazi organisation based in the United Kingdom (UK).  Founded in 2013 by Alex Davies and Benjamin Raymond, it was banned as a terrorist group by the UK government three years later in December 2016.  The group is secretive and has rules which prevent members from talking openly about the organisation.  In March 2017, an undercover investigation by ITV found that its members were still meeting in secret.  It is believed that since it was banned, National Action has organised itself in a similar way to the also banned Salafi jihadist Al-Muhajiroun network.

The organisation has promoted anti-Semitic conspiracy theories such as ‘Jews were behind the September 11 attacks’ and has labelled Cox as the ‘patron saint’ of grooming gangs, according to The Sunday Times.  At a secret meeting of the Yorkshire Forum, Jack Renshaw, a former Youth BNP activist, said (in a video seen by The Times) that they need to adopt a ‘killer instinct’.  According to him, "As nationalists we need to learn from the mistakes of the national socialists and we need to realise that, no, you do not show the Jew mercy.”

The group was banned as a terrorist organisation under the Terrorism Act 2000 in December 2016, making it a criminal offence to support or be a member of it.  In laying an order for National Action's proscription, the Home Secretary described the group as ‘a racist, anti-Semitic and homophobic organisation which stirs up hatred, glorifies violence and promotes a vile ideology.  National Action is the first far-right organisation to be proscribed in the UK since the now defunct British Union of Fascists in the 1940s.  Its ban was considered an acknowledgement by the UK government that the far-right was on the rise, and figures released by the National Police Chiefs' Council show that the number of far-right referrals to the anti-terror ‘Prevent’ programme increased from 323 cases in 2014-15 to 561 in 2015-16.

National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD)) is a far-right and ultranationalist political party in Germany.  It was founded in 1964 as successor to the German Reich Party (Deutsche Reichspartei (DRP)).  The party self-identifies as Germany's ‘only significant patriotic force’.  On 1 January 2011, the nationalist German People's Union (Deutsche Volksunion) merged with the NPD and the party name of the National Democratic Party of Germany was extended by the addition of ‘The People's Union’.

The party is usually described as a neo-Nazi organisation and has been referred to as ‘the most significant neo-Nazi party to emerge after 1945’.  The German Federal Agency for Civic Education has criticized the NPD for working with members of organisations which were later found unconstitutional by the federal courts and disbanded, while the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Germany's domestic security agency, classifies the NPD as a ‘threat to the constitutional order’ because of its platform and philosophy, and is under their observation.  An effort to outlaw the party failed in 2003 because the government had a large number of informers and agents in the party, some in high positions, who had written part of the material used against them.

Since its founding in 1964, the NPD has never managed to win enough votes on the federal level to cross Germany's 5% minimum threshold for representation in the Bundestag (German Parliament), although it has succeeded in crossing the 5% threshold and gaining representation in state parliaments 11 times.

Udo Voigt (born 1952) led the NPD from 1996 to 2011.  He was succeeded by Holger Apfel (born 1970), who in turn was replaced by Udo Pastörs (born 1952) in December 2013.  In November 2014, Pastörs was ousted and Frank Franz (born 1978) became the party's leader.  Voigt was elected the party's first Member of the European Parliament in 2014.

National Front (NF) The National Front (NF) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom (UK) whose headquarters are in Kingston upon Hull.  The NF is a minor party with no elected representatives at any level of UK government, although during its heyday in the 1970s it did have a small number of local councillors.  Nevertheless, it has never secured a seat in the British Parliament.

The NF was founded in 1967 by A.K. Chesterton (1899 - 1973) as a merger between his League of Empire Loyalists and the British National Party (BNP).  It was soon joined by the Greater Britain Movement whose leader John Tyndall (1934 - 2005) became the NF's chairman in 1972.  Under Tyndall's leadership it capitalised on growing concern regarding Asian migration to Britain, rapidly increasing its membership and share of the vote in urban areas of East London and Northern England.  Its public profile was raised through street marches and rallies, which often resulted in clashes with anti-fascist protesters.

In 1982, Tyndall left the NF to form his own British National Party (BNP).  Many NF members defected to Tyndall's BNP resulting in the NF's electoral support being greatly reduced.

During the 1980s, the NF split in two; the Flag NF retained the older ideology while the Official NF adopted a new stance before disbanding in 1990.  In 1995, the Flag NF's leadership transformed the party into the National Democrats, although a small splinter group retained the NF name and continues to contest elections, albeit without success.

Ideologically positioned on the far-right of British politics, the NF has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists.  Various different factions have dominated the party at different points in its history, each with its own ideological bent, including neo-Nazis and racial populists.  The party is ethnic nationalist and espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the UK.  It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK with settled non-white Britons to be stripped of citizenship and deported from the country.  It promotes biological racism, calling for global racial separatism and condemning interracial relationships and miscegenation (the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types).  It espouses anti-Semitic conspiracy theories, endorses Holocaust denial and claims that Jews seek to dominate the world through both communism and international capitalism.  It promotes economic protectionism, Euroscepticism, and a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights, and societal permissiveness.

Apart from the BNP, the NF has been the most successful extreme-right group in British politics since WWII.

National Socialist Movement (NSM) The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a neo-Nazi political party based in the United States (US) in the city of Detroit, Michigan.  It is a part of the Nationalist Front.

NSM was founded in 1974 in Saint Paul, Minnesota, as the ‘National Socialist American Workers Freedom Movement’ by Robert Brannen and Cliff Herrington, former members of the American Nazi Party before its decline.  The Party claims to be the largest and most active National Socialist organisation in the US.  Although classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Centre (SPLC), it refers to itself as a ‘white civil rights organisation’ in the vein of civil rights groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People.  NSM also objects to being referred to as racist, and Neo-Nazi, stating that such descriptions of their goals are unflattering and inaccurate.

The NSM was responsible for leading the demonstration which sparked the 2005 Toledo riot.  In April 2006, it held a rally on the capitol steps in Lansing, Michigan, which was met by a larger counter-rally and ended in scuffles.

In 2009, the NSM had 61 chapters in 35 states, making it the largest neo-Nazi group in the US according to the SPLC.  As of 2015, the NSM reports having direct organised presences in seven countries around the world, and other affiliations beyond that.

On 17 April 2010, 70 members of the NSM demonstrated against illegal immigration in front of the Los Angeles City Hall, drawing a counter protest of hundreds of anti-fascist demonstrators.  In May 2011, the NSM was described by The New York Times as being ‘the largest supremacist group, with about 400 members in 32 states, though much of its prominence followed the decay of Aryan Nation and other neo-Nazi groups’.

In 2012, two former members of the NSM were arrested and sentenced to prison for drug trafficking, stockpiling weapons, and plotting terrorism against a Mexican consulate in the United States.

As of March 2015, the organisation had planned a return to Toledo, Ohio, for a rally focusing on crime in the area.  In June 2016, the group helped organise the rally which turned into the 2016 Sacramento riot.  In November that year, following the election of Donald Trump, the organisation changed its logo, replacing the swastika with an Odal rune in an attempt to enter mainstream politics.

Following the 11/12 August 2017 riot and violence rising from the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, two lawsuits targeting 21 racist ‘alt-right’ and hate group leaders, including the NSM and its leader, were filed in US District Court for the Western District of Virginia and another in Virginia Circuit Court.  Organisations named in both suits were the National Socialist Movement; Traditionalist Workers Party (TWP); League of the South (LOS), and Vanguard America, a two-year-old white supremacy group claiming 12 U.S. chapters.  Two Ku Klux Klan groups, the Loyal White Knights and the East Coast Knights of the KKK, were named defendants in the federal suit.

The 96-page Federal Court filing accused the white supremacists of violating the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 and other statutes and seeks compensation and punitive damages.  They also asked the courts to intervene with legal orders preventing a repeat of the deadly events that occurred in Charlottesville, and barring use of private militias at such events.

The lawsuits claimed the Charlottesville rally had been planned for weeks, with its organisers making extensive use of social media -- coordinating everything and telling individuals to buy tiki torches to use as an internet-based communications system originally designed for gamers.  The federal suit said ‘hundreds of neo-Nazis and white supremacists travelled from near and far to descend upon the college town … in order to terrorise its residents, commit acts of violence, and use the town as a backdrop to showcase for the media and the nation a neo-nationalist agenda’.

Native Peoples Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.  Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary widely, being based on the differing histories and beliefs of individual tribes, clans and bands.

Early European explorers described individual Native American tribes and even small bands as each having their own religious practices.  Theology may be monotheistic, polytheistic, henotheistic, animistic, or some combination thereof.  Traditional beliefs are usually passed down in the forms of oral histories, stories, allegories and principles, and rely on face to face teaching in one's family and community.

Nazar A nazar (Turkish: nazar boncugu, Old Turkish: gökçe munçuk) meaning ‘blue bead’ is an eye-shaped amulet believed to protect against the Evil Eye.  Hindi, Urdu and Persians seem to have borrowed the term.  In Turkey, it is known by the name nazar boncugu.  See also Evil Eye.

In Persian folklore, it is called a 'cheshm nazar' or 'nazar ghorboni'.  In Urdu, it is also called ‘nazar’.

Nederlandse Volks-Unie (NVU) The Nederlandse Volks-Unie (NVU) (Dutch Peoples-Union) is a Dutch neo-Nazi political party which strives for a fusion of the Netherlands with Flanders and a Europe of the Fatherlands.  The party was founded by Guus Looy as a political party in 1971, with its key purpose to rehabilitate convicted WWII war criminals.  In 1973 Roeland Raes, of the Belgian Vlaams Blok, became vice-president (reflecting the desire of both parties to unite the Netherlands and Flanders) and later that year Joop Glimmerveen took over as president.  During the 1970s, the party became increasingly militant as younger neo-Nazis joined its ranks.

When Glimmerveen revealed his sympathy for Adolf Hitler and Anton Mussert, the NVU became more like a Nazi party as a result of which support for the party collapsed and it was banned.  However, due to an error in the law, the NVU managed to continue.  Some members formed the Centrumpartij (CP), which later split into the Centrum Demokraten (CD) and CP'86, and by the mid-1980s, the NVU had collapsed completely.

In 1996, a few young neo-National Socialists asked Glimmerveen, then 68 years of age, to form the NVU again, which he agreed to do.  In 1998, the NVU tried to enter the city council elections in Den Haag and Arnhem but failed.  At the moment, the NVU is the most active party on the extreme right in the Netherlands and gets support from the Aktiefront Nationale Socialisten (ANS), a small organisation of activists who claim solidarity with the plight of the Palestinians and other groups which they consider to be anti-imperialist.

Nekhakha See Crook & Flail.

Nekhbet In Egyptian mythology, Nekhbet was an early predynastic local goddess and the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name means 'of Nekheb').  Eventually, she was to become the patron of Upper Egypt and one of the two patron deities for the whole of Ancient Egypt upon its unification.

Egypt's oldest oracle was the shrine of Nekhbet at Nekheb, the original necropolis or city of the dead.  It was the companion city to Nekhen, the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Predynastic period (c. 3200 - 3100 BCE) and probably, during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100 - 2686 BCE).  The original settlement on the Nekhen site dates from Naqada I or the late Badarian cultures.

The priestesses of Nekhbet were called muu (mothers) and wore robes of Egyptian vulture feathers.  Nekhbet, the tutelary deity of Upper Egypt, and her Lower Egyptian counterpart Wadjet often appeared together as the 'Two Ladies'.  One of the titles of each ruler was the Nebty name, which began with the hieroglyphs for [she] of the Two Ladies.

Nemes The Nemes is the striped headcloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt.  It covered the whole crown, back of the head and the nape of the neck (sometimes extending a short way down the back) and had lappets (two large flaps which hung down behind the ears and in front of both shoulders).  It was sometimes combined with the Pschent (double crown), as seen on the statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.

The earliest depiction of the Nemes, along with a Uraeus, is the ivory label of Den from the 1st Dynasty.  It is not a crown in itself, but nevertheless symbolises the pharaoh's power.  The image to the right shows the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun wearing the Nemes headdress.

Nephthys Nephthys was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion.  A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Nut and Geb.  Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris, and as the sister and wife of Set.

In her funerary role, Nephthys was often depicted as a kite, or as a woman with falcon wings, usually outstretched as a symbol of protection.  Her association with the kite, or the Egyptian hawk, (and its piercing, mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancient Egyptians of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women.  In this capacity, it is easy to see how she could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts.

Neptune Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in our solar system.  It is the fourth largest planet by diameter, the third most massive planet, and the densest giant planet.  Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near twin Uranus, which is 15 times the mass of Earth and slightly larger than Neptune.

In Roman mythology, Neptune was known as the god of the sea; his Greek equivalent was Poseidon.  He was the brother of Jupiter, Pluto and Juno.  Neptune carried a trident, which had three prongs, and rode a dolphin or a horse.  When the sea is rough enough to show white tops to the waves, these are called 'sea horses'.

It seems strange that Neptune was not a more important god since the Roman Empire was based around the Mediterranean Sea.  However, the Romans were poor sailors, so when Julius Caesar invaded Britain it was considered an astounding feat, even though he was simply crossing the English Channel.

Neptune was also the god of earthquakes, which is why he was known as the Earth shaker.  In addition, he was the god of horses and horseracing.  The Romans loved to watch horseracing and had great race tracks for chariot racing such as the Circus Maximus, the ruins of which can still be seen in Rome today.

In astrology, Neptune is the ruler of Pisces.

Nidstang Nidstang literally means 'curse pole'.  The Nidstang is an ancient Scandinavian custom of formally cursing or hexing someone.  A wooden pole or stake was driven into the ground, then Runes were carved on the pole with the appropriate curse or insult.  Finally, a horse's head or carcass was placed on top of the pole facing in the direction one wished to send the curse.

The pole channelled the destructive forces of Hela/Hel, the Norse goddess of death, and daughter of Loki.  These forces were carried up the pole and projected through the horse's skull, while the runes carved on the pole defined the character and target of the destructive forces.

Nowadays, the Nidstang is more likely to be virtual, i.e. an internet curse accompanied by a virtual horse's head.

Nile Lotus The lotus flower is sacred in the Hindu, Buddhist, and Egyptian religions.  The Nile Lotus, although frequently depicted in Egyptian art, is not really an actual lotus, but a variety of water lily which rises from the muddy waters to blossom making it a symbol of purity and resurrection.  The Egyptian Lotus is mildly narcotic, and both the blue and white varieties were used in medicinal preparations.

In mathematics, the lotus hieroglyph symbolises the number one thousand -- see Egyptian Hieroglyphs.  In Egyptian mythology the lotus was associated with the Sun, because it bloomed by day, and closed by night.  The lotus was even believed to have given birth to the Sun and figures in a number of Egyptian creation stories.  It is particularly associated with the resurrected god Osiris.  See also Lotus Padme.

Nine Worlds The Nine Worlds in Norse mythology are the homelands of the various types of beings found in the pre-Christian world view of the Norse and other Germanic peoples.  These worlds are held in the branches and roots of the world tree Yggdrasil.

The Nine Worlds are: Midgard, the world of humanity; Asgard, the world of the Aesir tribe of gods and goddesses; Vanaheim, the world of the Vanir tribe of gods and goddesses; Jotunheim, the world of the giants; Niflheim, the primordial world of ice; Muspelheim, the primordial world of Fire; Alfheim, the world of the elves; Svartalfheim, the world of the dwarves; Hel, the world of the eponymous goddess Hel and the dead.

Midgard (the world of humanity) is surrounded by the Ocean, the abode of the world serpent Jormungandr.

Nishan Sahib The Nishan Sahib (the word, Nishan means symbol) is a Sikh triangular flag made of cotton or silk cloth, with a tassel at its end.  The flag is hoisted on a tall flagpole, outside most Gurdwaras (temples).  The flagpole itself, covered with fabric, ends with a two-edged dagger (Khanda) on top.

The emblem on the flag is also known as Khanda, which depicts a double-edged sword called a khanda in the centre circled by a chakkar and flanked by two single-edged swords, or Kirpans.

The banner, which has been in use for more than four hundred years, is present at all Sikh ceremonies and processions, and special rituals are enacted when it is raised and lowered.

Nordic Resistance Movement (NRM) The Nordic Resistance Movement (NRM), a Pan-Nordic neo-Nazi movement and, in Sweden, a political party, was formed in 2016.  The aim of the NRM is to establish a Nordic neo-Nazi government by revolution or elections.  The organisation says its fight will require bloodshed.  It is established in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland and Denmark -- a Danish affiliate was later disbanded.

Sweden - In December 1997, Klas Lund and some other former members of the White Aryan Resistance (also known as VAM -- a militant neo-Nazi network active from 1991 to 1993) having been released from prison after being convicted of robberies and manslaughter, among other things, formed the Swedish Resistance Movement (Svenska Motståndsrörelsen or SMR) together with individuals working with the neo-Nazi magazine Folktribunen and members of Nationell Ungdom (National Youth), a neo-Fascist and openly racist organisation.  It is known for its opposition to non-white immigration to Sweden.

Finland - The Finnish Resistance Movement is the Finnish branch of the NRM.  It was founded by Esa Henrik Holappa, who later abandoned neo-Nazism and left the group -- its current leader is Antti Niemi.  One of the main tactics has been the planting of propaganda stickers and posters.  Members also participate in combat training arranged by the organisation, which is becoming increasingly violent attacking anti-racism and gay pride demonstrations.  On 30 November 2017, the Pirkanmaa District Court banned the Nordic Resistance Movement in Finland as it 'flagrantly violated the principles of good practice', according to the court.  The ban has been appealed and is not legally binding.  A request by the police for a temporary ban was turned down.

Norway - The Norwegian Resistance Movement is the Norwegian chapter of the NRM, founded and chaired by Haakon Forwald.

The NRM advocates an immediate stop to what they call mass immigration to the Scandinavian countries, and repatriation of people that are not of Northern European descent.  It also supports Nordic self-sufficiency and withdrawal from the European Union (EU).

On 28 February 2018, The Verge (an American technology news and media network operated by Vox Media) reported that Discord (a proprietary freeware voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) application designed for gaming communities, that specialises in text and audio communication between users in a chat channel) had shut down a number of neo-Nazi and alt-right servers, including that of the NRM, from their private chat platform, for abuse of its Terms of Service.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European countries based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.  NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.  Three NATO members (the United States (US), France, and the United Kingdom (UK)) are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states.  NATO headquarters is located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.

NATO is an alliance consisting of 29 independent member countries across North America and Europe -- since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29.  The most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro in June 2017.  NATO currently recognises Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members.  An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalised dialogue programs.  The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.  Members' defence spending is supposed to amount to at least 2% of GDP by 2024.

NATO was little more than a political association until the Korean War roused the organisation's member states, when an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two US Supreme Commanders.  The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, that formed in 1955.  Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the US ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defence against a prospective Soviet invasion -- doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966 for 30 years.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organisation became involved in the breakup of Yugoslavia, and conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and later Yugoslavia in 1999.  Politically, the organisation sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004.

Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.  The organisation has operated a range of additional roles since then, including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973.  The less potent Article 4, which merely invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times: by Turkey in 2003 over the Iraq War; twice in 2012 by Turkey over the Syrian Civil War, after the downing of an unarmed Turkish F-4 reconnaissance jet, and after a mortar was fired at Turkey from Syria; in 2014 by Poland, following the Russian intervention in Crimea; and again by Turkey in 2015 after threats by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant to its territorial integrity.

Nova Roma See Italo-Roman Neopaganism.

November 9th Society (N9S) The November 9th Society (also known as N9S) is a British neo-Nazi group, formed in 1977 by Terry Flynn.  Under Flynn's leadership, N9S functioned as a pressure group, but under the leadership of Kevin Quinn, the group has taken a more active role in British politics.  Under the name ‘British First Party (BFP)’, the group ran two candidates in the May 2007 UK local elections in Sunderland.  In St Anne's ward, the BFP candidate received 257 votes of the 2,293 votes cast, finishing ahead of the Liberal Democrats and three votes behind the British National Party (BNP).  In Redhill ward, the BFP candidate received 78 out of 2,540 the votes cast.  The N9S's slogan of ‘We will never change to flirt with public opinion’ came to an end when the BFP was introduced, and many other right-wing parties turned their back on the N9S/BFP ever being a serious contender in British politics.  Its UK core members wear an identifying silver 'fraternity' ring among their regalia.  It was renamed back to November 9th Society in November 2007.

N9S states that its name comes from the date in 1923 when 16 Nazis lost their lives at Feldherrnhalle (Field Marshall’s Hall) in Munich as part of the Beer Hall Putsch -- a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.  Opponents have argued that the name is actually based on the Kristallnacht in 1938, and that N9S is merely a force for anti-Semitism.

The society has had sporadic activity since its inception, and Searchlight magazine claims the group had 120 members although the numbers are deemed far lower due to the forming of the British First Party causing a split between members.  They produce the magazine Britain Awake, and previously had a blog on their website.  On 17 December 2005 and 20 March 2006, they were involved in demonstrations outside the Austrian embassy in support of David Irving who was awaiting trial in Austria for Holocaust denial and who was subsequently jailed for three years.  They took part in a similar demonstration on 20 December 2006, the day of Irving's early release.  At one point, N9S had a youth leader known as M.L (an ex-football hooligan and German national) and regional leaders who operated in groups to distribute leaflets.

The group prided itself on strong security, and members were encouraged not to reveal their real identities online.  However, the anonymity of several members was compromised in February 2006 when the group became the subject of an undercover investigation by a reporter from the British tabloid newspaper Sunday Mirror.  The paper reported that one of its reporters had infiltrated the group and filmed several members, including Quinn, verbally abusing Jewish people in the street, boasting of having committed violent attacks, and making overtly racist jokes.  Quinn claimed that these were outright lies.  In November 2006, the Jewish Chronicle published an exposé of the society, alleging among other things, that the members wear Nazi regalia in private, and are attempting to recruit youths.

The society campaigns against non-white immigration, abortion, communism, foreign aid and homosexuality.  It promotes a hierarchical system of leadership, repatriation, Holocaust denial and British ownership of industry, with all banking controlled by a central government bank and all media outlets becoming nationalised.  N9S members are critical of the BNP, which they view as too moderate, even dubbing them 'Conservatives on steroids'.

Nut Usually depicted nude, her body made of stars arching over the world, Nut (also known by various other transcriptions such as Nuit) is the Egyptian goddess of the sky who swallowed the Sun each evening and gave birth to it each morning.  She was the personification of the sky and the heavens.

In one myth, Nut gives birth to the Sun god daily; he passes over her body during the day before being swallowed at night, only to be reborn the following morning.  In another myth, Ra used the Atet (or Matet) boat to travel across her body until noon and then used the Sektet boat until sunset.

Nut was the daughter of Shu and Tefnut and the granddaughter of the creator god (Atum or Ra).  Geb the Earth god was her husband and brother.  However, she could also be said to be the mother of Ra, as the Coffin Texts refer to her as 'she of the braided hair who bore the gods'.

Her grandfather, Ra, was the second to rule the world, according to the reign of the gods.  He was a strong ruler but he feared anyone taking his throne, so when he discovered that Nut was to have children, he was furious.  He decreed, "Nut shall not give birth any day of the year."  At that time, a year consisted of 360 days.  Nut spoke to Thoth, the god of wisdom, who devised a plan.

Thoth gambled with Khonsu, a god of the Moon, whose light rivalled that of Ra's.  Every time Khonsu lost, he had to forfeit some of his moonlight.  Khonsu lost so many times that Thoth had enough moonlight to make 5 extra days.  Since these days were not part of the year, Nut could safely give birth to her children, of which she had five: Osiris, a future ruler of the gods and then god of the dead, Horus the Elder, god of war, Set, god of evil and wastelands, Isis, goddess of magic, and Nephthys, goddess of water.  When Ra discovered this trickery he was furious, so much so that he separated Nut from her husband Geb for eternity.

In Thelemic practice, Nut revealed herself to the Ritual Magician Aleister Crowley (1875 - 1947) in her manifestation as Nuit (see Aleister Crowley's Book of the Law -- Liber al vel Legis).

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